最新公告 主持人 成員 指導碩士論文 期刊論文 研討會論文 專書 國科會計畫 其他計畫 週訊文章 專利

運動生理週訊運動生理週訊電子報
Online ISSN : 1814-7712
版權所有 未經同意 請勿轉載或節錄

主題:肌力與耐力訓練同時進行好嗎?
發言 : scwang 時間 : 02/10/27(21:23:10) From : 61.57.208.44
運動生理週訊(第133期)

肌力與耐力訓練同時進行好嗎?(October.27.2002)

王順正

  有關肌肉生長(肌力增長)與耐力訓練是否有衝突的討論,一直被網友們提出來:「請問這兩者的衝突是在於如果兼作有氧與重訓,那麼重訓這一方的效果會減弱?也就是肌肉的生長會跟有氧抵消,導致肌肉的增大效果不理想。不知道大家有何意見…這有運動生理學的依據嗎?(重量訓練後跑步會減慢肌肉生長?)。」老實說,確實有一些研究報告確認這樣的情況,特別是在先進行耐力訓練再進行肌力訓練的狀況下,肌力訓練效果減低的狀況最明顯(林正常等人,2002;Dudley與Djamil,1985;Hickson,1980)。Leveritt等人(1999)透過文獻探討的方式,發現肌力與耐力訓練同時進行時,確實會降低肌力的訓練效果(與僅有肌力訓練的效果比較)。

  也有有關肌肉類型的研究發現(Ratzin等人,1990),肌肉分別先後進行兩次7.5週的高強度低反覆與低強度高反覆訓練,先接受低強度高反覆再接受高強度低反覆的肌肉,在TypeI、TypeIIa、TypeIIb的肌肉皆出現橫斷面積增大的現象,但是,先接受高強度低反覆再接受低強度高反覆的肌肉,在第二次的低強度高反覆的7.5週訓練後,TypeI、TypeIIb纖維的橫斷面積沒有顯著增加。林正常等人(2002)翻譯的運動生理學一書中也指出,阻力訓練會造成TypeIIb纖維百分比減少、TypeIIa纖維百分比增加;十週的耐力訓練會使骨骼肌TypeIIb纖維變為TypeI纖維的能力。似乎阻力訓練與耐力訓練都有使快縮纖維變成慢縮纖維的趨勢,只是阻力訓練的改變是少量的影響。

  實際進行肌力與耐力訓練的整合訓練效果研究中,也有研究(Gravelle與Blessing,2000)發現11週的肌力與耐力的混合訓練(分為肌力訓練組、先肌力後耐力訓練組、以及先耐力或肌力訓練組),對於女性的肌力增進效果(增加比例分別為百分之25.9、26.6與27.49)並沒有顯著的差別。Bell等人(1991)將受試者分為兩組進行十二週的訓練,一組每週進行三天肌力訓練、另一組除了每週進行三天肌力訓練以外,還在另外三天耐力訓練,研究結果發現同時進行肌力與耐力訓練(不同天中訓練),並不會影響被訓練者的肌力發展(肌力訓練與與肌力加耐力訓練組的肌力增加率相同)。Tipton等人(1996)則研究不同訓練方式後的肌肉蛋白質合成(muscle protein synthesis),研究結果發現結合游泳與阻力訓練的混合訓練方式,最能夠刺激肌肉的蛋白質合成(與僅進行游泳或阻力訓練組比較)。

  其實,僅進行耐力訓練是否會影響肌肉的大小,也與這個討論主題有顯著的關連。Eliakim(1997)研究年輕母Sprague-Dawley老鼠,在連續五天的中等強度跑步訓練後,右後腿的肌肉重量增加了百分之十六。由此可見,僅進行耐力訓練也會增加主要作用肌肉的大小。Ostrowski等人(1997)則研究肌力訓練量對於肌肉大小與肌力變化的影響,研究發現連續十週、每週四天、每天進行三組、六組與十二組肌力訓練者,並不會影響肌肉與肌力的大小。既然少量的肌力訓練與耐力訓練都可以獲得肌肉增大的效果,在肌力訓練後進行耐力訓練會降低肌肉的大小嗎?

  整體而言,肌力與耐力訓練是否能夠同時進行,確實存在極大的爭議,包括運動者的能力、訓練的強度選擇、訓練的頻率(每週訓練的次數)、訓練量的多寡、整合訓練的方式等,都是影響同時進行肌力與耐力訓練效果的因素。而且,肌力訓練的效果與肌肉大小的訓練效果也不相同。最重要的是,一般沒有經過訓練者,就算僅進行耐力訓練也會增加肌肉與肌力的大小。有關肌力與耐力訓練相互抑制的研究結果,似乎與運動者的能力有顯著的關連,不過,這樣的推論仍然需要進一步的實驗資料來驗證。

  一般健美愛好者與運動選手在進行訓練時,如果以肌力為主要的訓練目標時,確實需要小心安排耐力訓練的內容,但是,也不必完全排斥進行耐力訓練。為了避免可能出現的肌力訓練效果與耐力訓練相互抑制的現象,耐力訓練的安排應該盡可能的與肌力訓練錯開(不要在同一天或同一個時段中進行),如果有必要安排在同一個時段,可能以肌力訓練先進行為佳。

  在400m田徑網站中,也有三級跳遠選手T.J.GENIUS提出冬季訓練的艱苦經歷:「十趟300m、每趟45秒、休息3分鐘…完畢休30分鐘,測一趟3000m。呵呵~這是我遇過最有挑戰性的課表~我是3級跳選手~或許不能跟一般200m以上選手比較~也因為我速耐比較差~所以這種課表就足夠殺死我嚕(最苦的日子…熬過來了嗎?)。」

  以肌力與耐力訓練會相互抑制的研究結果(當然這樣的研究結果並未獲得一致的確認)來看,在冬季訓練時安排(優秀的)跳部選手、擲部選手進行間歇訓練雖然有其必要,卻也必須承擔可能抑制肌力訓練效果的危險。似乎教練可以透過增加休息時間的安排,以及穿插進行肌力與耐力訓練的設計,達到增加選手冬季訓練一般性體能的目標,同時也可以避免過多的耐力訓練(間歇訓練),限制了選手在專項體能上的發展。


參考資料:

林正常總校閱(2002)。運動生理學。藝軒。台北市。

Bell, G. J., Petersen, S. R., Wessel, J., Bagnall, K., and Quinney, H. A. (1991). Physiological adaptations to concurrent endurance training and low velocity resistance training. International Journal of Sports Medicine,12(4),384-390.

Dudley, G., and Djamil, R. (1985). Incompatibility of strength and endurance training. Journal of Applied Physiology,59,1446-1451.

Eliakim, A., Moromisato, M. Y., Moromisato, D. Y., and Cooper, D. M. (1997). Functional and muscle size response to 5 days of treadmill training in young rats. Pediatric Exercise Science,9(4),324-330.

Gravelle, B. L., and Blessing, D. L. (2000). Physisological adaptation in woman concurrently training for strength and endurance. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research,14(1),5-13.

Hickson, R. C. (1980). Interference of strength development by simultaneously training for strength and eendurance. European Journal of Applied Physiology,45,255-263.

Leveritt, M., Abernethy, P. J., Barry, B. K., and Logan, P. A. (1999). Concurrent strength and endurance training : a review. Sports Medicine,28(6),413-427.

Ostrowski, K. J., Wilson, G. J., Weatherby, R., Murphy, P. W., Lyttle, A. D., (1997). The effect of weight training volume on hormonal output and muscular size and function. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research,11(3),148-154.

Ratzin, C. G., Dickinson, A. L., and Ringel, S. P. (1990). Skeletal muscle fiber area alterations in two opposing modes of resistance exercise training in the same individual. European Journal of Applied Physiology,61,37-41.

Tipton, K. D., Ferrando, A. A., Williams, B. D., and Wolfe, R. R. (1996). Muscle protein metabolism in female swimmers after a combination of resistance and endurance exercise. Journal of Applied Physiology,81(5),2034-2038.

回應 : 1 wes時間 : 2002/10/29 下午 01:45:29 From : 61.216.30.220


『十週的耐力訓練會使骨骼肌TypeIIb纖維變為TypeI纖維的能力。』

根據我先前閱讀國外文獻的了解,運動員只能藉由訓練將Type IIa纖維轉變成Type IIb纖維,但是無法將Type IIa或Type IIb轉變成Type I纖維。難道最近有新的研究發現,可以支持上述的說法?


回應 : 2 wes時間 : 2002/10/29 下午 02:00:46 From : 61.216.30.220

『藉由訓練將Type IIa纖維轉變成Type IIb纖維』

抱歉。上面那句話應該是『藉由訓練將Type IIb纖維轉變成Type IIa纖維』。


回應 : 3 scwang時間 : 2002/10/29 下午 04:39:47 From : 140.123.5.19

Journal of Applied Physiology,86,3,1002-1008,1999

Exercise-induced alterations in skeletal muscle myosin heavy chain phenotype: dose-response relationship

Haydar A. Demirel1,2, Scott K. Powers1, Hisashi Naito1, Michael Hughes1, and Jeff S. Coombes1

1 Department of Exercise and Sport Sciences and Physiology, Center for Exercise Science, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611; and 2 School of Sport Sciences and Technology, University of Hacettepe, Beytepe, Ankara, 06532, Turkey

This study investigated the effects of exercise training duration on the myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoform distribution in rat locomotor muscles. Female Sprague-Dawley rats (120 days old) were assigned to either a sedentary control group or to one of three endurance exercise training groups. Trained animals ran on a treadmill at ~75% maximal O2 uptake for 10 wk (4-5 days/wk) at one of three different exercise durations (30, 60, or 90 min/day). Training resulted in increases (P < 0.05) in citrate synthase activity in the soleus and extensor digitorum longus in both the 60 and 90 min/day duration groups and in the plantaris (Pla) in all three exercise groups. All durations of training resulted in a reduction (P < 0.05) in the percentage of MHCIIb and an increase (P < 0.05) in the percentage of MHCIIa in the Pla. The magnitude of change in the percentage of MHCIIb in the Pla increased as a function of the training duration. In the extensor digitorum longus, 90 min of daily exercise promoted a decrease (P < 0.05) in percentage of MHCIIb and increases (P < 0.05) in the percentages of MHCI, MHCIIa, and MHCIId/x. Finally, training durations 60 min resulted in an increase (P < 0.05) in the percentage of MHCI and a concomitant decrease (P < 0.05) in the percentage of MHCIIa in the soleus. These results demonstrate that increasing the training duration elevates the magnitude of the fast-to-slow shift in MHC phenotype in rat hindlimb muscles.

全文


回應 : 4 wes時間 : 2002/10/30 上午 01:01:51 From : 61.216.30.220

所以當已過世的女子100和200公尺世界紀錄保持人葛瑞菲絲說她想改練馬拉松,並且希望能夠創造佳績,並非是在癡人說夢囉?


回應 : 5 scwang時間 : 2002/10/30 上午 01:35:55 From : 140.123.5.16

參考資料為林正常等人翻譯運動生理學一書(2002,藝軒),143-144頁。該篇論文之研究結果如下圖所示。根據這篇研究報告短跑選手練成馬拉松選手確實有可能,不過,這篇報告的對象為老鼠。



Myosin heavy chain (MHC) pool composition of soleus (A), plantaris (B), and extensor digitorum longus (C) muscles. Values are means ± SE expressed as percentage of total MHC pool. Significant difference (P < 0.05): from a control group; from b 30-min group; from c 60-min group.


回應 : 6 scwang時間 : 2002/12/4 下午 08:15:17 From : 140.123.5.19

今天收到Jeep醫師寄來兩篇相關的paper,我把它轉貼在此讓大家參考。謝謝Jeep醫師的用心與協助。

Author :Tanaka, H. Swensen, T.
Title :Impact of resistance training on endurance performance: a new form of cross-training?
Source :Sports medicine 25(3), Mar 1998, 191-200

English Abstract :
In accordance with the principles of training specificity, resistance and endurance training induce distinct muscular adaptations. Endurance training, for example, decreases the activity of the glycolytic enzymes, but increases intramuscular substrate stores, oxidative enzyme activities, and capillary, as well as mitochondrial, density. In contrast, resistance or strength training reduces mitochondrial density, while marginally impacting capillary density, metabolic enzyme activites and intramuscular substrate stores (except muscle glycogen). The training modalities do induce one common muscular adaptation: they transform type IIb myofibres into IIa myofibres. This transformation is coupled with opposite changes in fibre size (resistance training increases, and endurance training decreases, fibre size), and, in general, myofibre contractile properties. As a result of these distinct muscular adaptations, endurance training facilitates aerobic processes, whereas resistance training increases muscular strength and anaerobic power. Exercise performance data do not fit this paradigm, however, as they indicate that resistance training or the addition of resistance training to an ongoing endurance exercise regimen, including running or cycling, increases both short and long term endurance capacity in sedentary and trained individuals. Resistance training also appears to improve lactate threshold in untrained individuals during cycling. These improvements may be linked to the capacity of resistance training to alter myofibre size and contractile properties, adaptations that may increase muscular force production. In contrast to running and cycling, traditional dry land resistance training or combined swim and resistance training does not appear to enhance swimming performance in untrained individuals or competitive swimmers, despite substantially increasing upper body strength. Combined swim and swim-specific "in-water" resistance training programmes, however, increase a competitive swimmer's velocity over distances up to 200m. Traditional resistance training may be a valuable adjunct to the exercise programmes followed by endurance runners or cyclists, but not swimmers; these latter athletes need more specific forms of resistance training to realise performance improvement.

作者:Docherty D ; Sporer B
所屬機構: School of Physical Education, University of Victoria, British Columbia, Canada. docherty@uvic.ca
題名: A proposed model for examining the interference phenomenon between concurrent aerobic and strength training.
資料來源: Sports Med (Sports medicine (Auckland, N.Z.)) 2000 Dec; 30(6): 385-94
附加資訊: New Zealand
標準號碼: ISSN: 0112-1642; NLM特別標識符: 8412297
語種: English
摘要: A review of the current research on the interference phenomenon between concurrent aerobic and strength training indicates modest support for the model proposed in this article. However, it is clear that without a systematic approach to the investigation of the phenomenon there is lack of control and manipulation of the independent variables, which makes it difficult to test the validity of the model. To enhance the understanding of the interference phenomenon, it is important that researchers are precise and deliberate in their choice of training protocols. Clear definition of the specific training objectives for strength (muscle hypertrophy or neural adaptation) and aerobic power (maximal aerobic power or anaerobic threshold) are required. In addition, researchers should equate training volumes as much as possible for all groups. Care needs to be exercised to avoid overtraining individuals. There should be adequate recovery and regeneration between the concurrent training sessions as well as during the training cycle. The model should be initially tested by maintaining the same protocols throughout the duration of the study. However, it is becoming common practice to use a periodised approach in a training mesocycle in which there is a shift from high volume and moderate intensity training to tower volume and higher intensity. The model should be evaluated in the context of a periodised mesocycle provided the investigators are sensitive to the potential impact of the loading parameters on the interference phenomenon. It may be that the periodised approach is one way of maintaining the training stimulus and minimising the amount of interference. The effects of gender, training status, duration and frequency of training, and the mode of training need to be regarded as potential factors effecting the training response when investigating the interference phenomenon. Other experimental design factors such as unilateral limb training or training the upper body for one attribute and the lower body for another attribute, may help establish the validity of the model.


回應 : 7 scwang時間 : 2004/1/12 下午 06:21:54 From : 140.123.226.99

練到快死掉ㄉ標槍選手 [女][學生]

呼..好累好累阿...為什麼冬季訓練ㄉ課表..
擲部ㄉ要跑到300公尺3趟去ㄌ阿..阿不然就是還有1000公尺4趟ㄉ...都要記秒ㄉ!
真ㄉ快變鐵人ㄌ...
我看這ㄍ冬季訓練過去ㄌ..
我都可以改項ㄌ...ㄏ..



scwang回應:
三級跳遠選手T.J.GENIUS提出冬季訓練的艱苦經歷:「十趟300m、每趟45秒、休息3分鐘...完畢休30分鐘,測一趟3000m。呵呵~這是我遇過最有挑戰性的課表~我是3級跳選手~或許不能跟一般200m以上選手比較~也因為我速耐比較差~所以這種課表就足夠殺死我嚕。」(運動生理週訊電子報第133期「肌力與耐力訓練同時進行好嗎?(October.27.2002)」)
scwang回應:
test
戀到快死掉ㄉ標槍選手回應:
恩..挖..那ㄍ真ㄉ會死人...會累死人..
那比起來我ㄉ好像真ㄉ好多ㄌ...
只是全ㄍ一ㄥ重量家ㄍ投擲再加ㄍ三百ㄉ人就再挖挖叫ㄌ...真不能比!!..累到都會軟腳說..跑長祝跑跑到會跌倒...喝..狠糗..!
別人都會說..擲部好輕鬆喔..跳部ㄝ是...
才怪咧...我們要用腦子練習地...格外還不是一樣要跑.要壓很重..還要跑耐力咧..是怎麼樣拉...喝..累死人ㄌ
小敏回應:
曾有位大陸好手(我忘了她的大名了)到桃園國體院教研所演講
她說,台灣優秀擲部選手(國家代表隊)的訓練量,跟大陸的比起來,大概只有十分之一。
這樣就表示,台灣選手的訓練量,確實不太夠!
我想,訓練課表的內容不應該只是看“量”,而是應該先看訓練內容的“特殊性”與個人的需求(差異性),兩者相調配之後所產生的量,才是真正應該去探討的東西。
“冬季”訓練,照理來說應該是休養期或準備期,此一期間,“基本”體能絕對是非常重要的。因為,如果一個選手的基本體能水準不夠的話,那又如何在鍛鍊期或比賽期,將自己的狀況ㄍ一ㄥ到最高點,甚至出現超水準的演出?
就算是超水準了,又如何能確定自己的超水準,不是一般選手的超水準,而是世界第一人的超水準?
今天,就算是射箭比賽,選手比賽時不用跑步,頂多是“走一走”,但為何平日也要訓練長跑?原因,不外也是為了,「站!也要站的比別人久,比別人穩ㄚ!」
想要擁有比別人出色,出眾的成績,
就要鍛鍊的比別人辛苦,且艱辛!
天下沒有白吃的午餐
除非....你只想當個平凡人,那我就沒話說了!


回應 : 8 scwang時間 : 2004/1/12 下午 10:48:42 From : 140.123.226.100

Andes Cheng回應:
每個教練都有他自己的考量, 選手如有疑問(尤其是大專選手), 應該與教練互相討論, 以適切地了解教練的用意, 如此對訓練處方所要強調的重點, 也才能發揮到極至.....
另外, 射箭項目的長跑訓練, 目的可能是在延長安靜時的心跳數間隔(R-R interval), 以達到穩定身體的效果...


回應 : 9 scwang時間 : 2004/1/13 下午 09:28:37 From : 140.123.226.99

阿娟回應:
直覺這位標槍選手大概是個高中生,因為他對自己的課表內容不了解,也不知道這樣的課表對他有什麼幫助,老實說:我個人在國、高中時期對訓練課表也是有頗多的埋怨,尤其狂飆期很容易對任何事物感到不滿,直到到了大學學到許多的相關知識,才漸漸明白課表的內容對你有什麼樣的幫助!

給你一個最簡單的解釋:擲部運動員為什麼要耐力訓練?因為我們的比賽時間通常會超過2-3個小時,雖然正式投擲只有幾秒鐘,但你能確保你在這2-3個小時內,都能保持在最佳狀態嗎?所以你需要耐力訓練!來幫助你!

小敏老師寫的是事實!但在我看來卻會感到很難過,大陸的選手真的是練的很多,他們是職業運動員,有相當多的資源,人材、器材,甚至他們的民情也相當支持,我們只看到頂尖的運動員,你知道被淘汰的運動員的命運嗎?因為他們都在訓練,都沒唸什麼書,有的甚至是文盲,頂尖的運動員只要在他們的省市拿到冠軍就有房子等獎品,他們甚至不想出國比賽,因為獎金未必拿的高!

我們可以學習他們的優點,但他們的方式未必完全適合我們,畢竟民情不同!

如果立足點相同,我們不見得會輸喔!


回應 : 10 scwang時間 : 2004/1/14 下午 03:08:50 From : 61.57.208.44

小敏回應:
中國有句俗話說的好:一種米養百樣人!
每個人一生下來,他的家世背景與身材等遺傳條件就已經是上天注定的了
若凡事都要要求立足點相同之後才能進行,那....是件多麼困難的事!
此外,如果立足點不同,是否就代表著可以放棄自己攀登世界頂級選手之列的夢想?
一個人坐落於谷底,如果能運用自己有限的能力,創造出無限的空間與世界,那才是彌足可貴的成就!
不至可否的,若想要在臺灣這有限的體育資源中,創造出一片國際性的天空,那是件多麼多麼困難的事!
但是,如果真的有心要做的話,相信,也不是做不到的!
舉個例子:網球選手盧彥勳,就是因為長期接受有心廠商的贊助,所以能如願的在國際比賽中繼續建築他的夢想;
只不過,我相信,他一開始也是經由某些好心人士的牽線,才能如願的與愛好體育運動的廠商相結合,並獲得金錢上的贊助.
我只想說,不要怨天,不要尤人,縱使命中注定了你的開始,但那並不代表你的結果,因為,事在人為!
我是個具有傳統思想的中國人,我相信"命中注定論";但是,我是出生在20世紀年代的人,所以,我更相信"事在人為論".
共勉之!!!


回應 : 11 小敏時間 : 2005/9/1 下午 03:57:01 From : 218.164.17.37

今天也看到一篇

J Strength Cond Res. 2003 Aug;17(3):503-8. Related Articles, Links


Concurrent strength and endurance training: the influence of dependent variable selection.

Leveritt M, Abernethy PJ, Barry B, Logan PA.

School of Biosciences, University of Westminster, London, United Kingdom. M.D.Leveritt@wmin.ac.uk

Twenty-six active university students were randomly allocated to resistance (R, n = 9), endurance (E, n = 8), and concurrent resistance and endurance (C, n = 9) training conditions. Training was completed 3 times per week in all conditions, with endurance training preceding resistance training in the C group. Resistance training involved 4 sets of upper- and lower-body exercises with loads of 4-8 repetition maximum (RM). Each endurance training session consisted of five 5-minute bouts of incremental cycle exercise at between 40 and 100% of peak oxygen uptake (.VO2peak). Parameters measured prior to and following training included strength (1RM and isometric and isokinetic [1.04, 3.12, 5.20, and 8.67 rad.s(-1)] strength), .VO2peak and Wingate test performance (peak power output [PPO], average power, and relative power decline). Significant improvements in 1RM strength were observed in the R and C groups following training. .VO2peak significantly increased in E and C but was significantly reduced in R after training. Effect size (ES) transformations on the other dependent variables suggested that performance changes in the C group were not always similar to changes in the R or E groups. These ES data suggest that statistical power and dependent variable selection are significant issues in enhancing our insights into concurrent training. It may be necessary to assess a range of performance parameters to monitor the relative effectiveness of a particular concurrent training regimen.


回應 : 12 miki時間 : 2005/12/15 下午 11:59:41 From : 203.72.224.104

請問如以性別考慮肌力的影響因素的話,為何女性體脂肪為男性的兩倍?這個問題很困擾我如果知道麻煩講解一下!




心肺適能訓練的理論與實務(2008) 健康運動的方法與保健(2002) 運動生理學問答集(2002) 運動與健康(1998) 運動技術分析-運動生物力學研究方法(1996,2005)
運動生理學網站